Global stock markets continued to surge in the second quarter. Developed markets led the way, with the S&P 500 Index gaining 8.5%. International stocks rose 5.0%, held back by mixed news on the COVID-19 front and a tightening in China’s financial conditions.
Within the U.S. stock market, the rotation from growth to value stocks took a pause, with the Russell 3000 Growth Index gaining 11.4% versus a 5.2% rise for the Value index. Smaller-cap value stocks slightly outperformed their growth counterparts and remain the top-performing segment of the U.S. market this year. However, large-cap stocks handily beat small-cap stocks in the second quarter.
In fixed-income markets, the 10-year Treasury yield dipped below 1.50% in June, ending the quarter at 1.45%, down from 1.75% at the end of March, despite higher inflation readings during the quarter. This contributed to a 1.0% return for the core bond index. However, core bonds are still down 0.9% for the year. Flexible actively managed bond funds also posted solid gains for the quarter. High yield corporate bonds were up 2.7% while emerging market bonds gained 4.1%.
Portfolio Performance & Key Performance Drivers
Our active portfolios performed broadly in line with or slightly better than their benchmarks in the second quarter. In general, our moderately “risk-on” (reflationary) positioning—represented by a slight overweight to global equities in most portfolios and our favoring of non-core bonds over core bonds—was beneficial despite the rebound in core bond prices due to falling interest rates.
The Macro Backdrop
This is an extraordinarily unusual time, and we really don’t have a template or, you know, any experience of a situation like this. —Federal Reserve chair Jerome Powell, June 16, 2021
The Big Picture Bottom Line
Our assessment of the macroeconomic backdrop and outlook has not meaningfully changed since last quarter-end. We continue to expect a strong global economic recovery over the next 12 months at least, driven by expanding COVID-19 vaccinations and immunity, and still-accommodative global monetary and fiscal policy (although increasingly less so). While most asset class valuations are expensive, these macro conditions remain broadly supportive of corporate earnings and risk assets, such as global equities, higher yielding bonds, and select alternative investments.
Inflation risks have increased. But in our view, the weight of the evidence still suggests much of the recent price surge is transitory and that sustained high inflation is not an imminent risk. This is primarily because there remains meaningful slack in the economy and labor market. We expect the competitive forces of supply and demand to restrain price increases over the coming months as economic activity continues to normalize. We are already seeing this trend in many commodity markets.
However, as Jay Powell says, there is significant uncertainty as the economy recovers from the unprecedented pandemic-induced dislocations. There remains inflationary and deflationary risks. We are not adamant in our macro or market views. Our analysis and views will continue to evolve as new economic data arise and the markets respond.
Case for a Continued Strong Global Economic Recovery
With COVID-19 vaccinations and immunity continuing to spread across the globe (albeit unevenly distributed), we continue to expect a strong global economic recovery. Recent economic data support this. For example, as Ned Davis Research highlights, the Global Composite Purchasing Managers Index (PMI), a monthly proxy for GDP, jumped to its highest level in over 15 years in May, and the recovery has finally broadened from manufactured goods to services as economies reopen and social distancing restrictions are relaxed (see the chart above).
The U.S. economy has been very strong this year, but it looks like U.S. GDP growth peaked in the second quarter and will decelerate going into 2022. However, global GDP growth is likely to strengthen in the second half of the year, driven by accelerating growth outside the United States. Overseas economic data is still surprising strongly on the upside, as shown in the Citi Economic Surprise Indexes for Europe and Emerging Markets (the orange and grey color lines on the chart to the right). Meanwhile, U.S. economic surprises have fallen sharply toward zero. The U.S. economy has led the global growth parade so far this year and will continue to grow at a well-above-trend rate. But this strength is now largely discounted in consensus expectations and so probably more susceptible to a negative surprise.
The Fed reflected the consensus growth view when it updated its economic forecasts at its June 16 Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting. The Fed now expects U.S. real GDP to grow 7.0% this year, up from its 6.5% growth forecast in March. The Fed left its 2022 GDP growth forecast at 3.3%. Most economists and the Fed estimate the U.S. economy’s longer-term potential GDP growth rate, which is a function of labor force growth and productivity growth, is around 2.0%.
The Monetary & Fiscal Policy Impulse Is Becoming a Bit More Uncertain
The increase in the Fed’s 2021 growth expectations wasn’t a surprise. What was a surprise, and what got most of the market and media attention, was the Fed’s updated “dot plot” showing the 18 individual FOMC participants’ current expectations for future federal funds rate hikes. Whereas at the March meeting the median dot implied the Fed was not expecting to start raising rates until at least 2024, the latest dots revealed a surprisingly hawkish shift, with the median dot now indicating two rate hikes in 2023.
The financial markets went into a bit of a tizzy for a few days over this change, but we would not read too much into it. The Fed dot plots have had no accuracy in predicting what the fed funds rate actually is several years hence. Basically, the Fed itself doesn’t know what it will end up doing two or three years from now. Nor should we expect them to know as it depends on what’s going on in the economy at that time, and no one has a crystal ball.
We believe the Fed and monetary policy are still likely to remain accommodative for a long time, although increasingly less so at the margin. Before starting to raise the fed funds rate, the Fed will need to wind down its $120 billion per month quantitative easing (QE) asset purchasing program that it started last March. The consensus seems to be for the Fed to start QE “tapering” in early 2022 and end QE by the end of 2022. The Fed is afraid of upsetting the financial markets and says it will give plenty of notice before beginning tapering. Then, after tapering is complete, it will allow some time before it starts signaling it is preparing to begin to increase the fed funds rate. Therefore, we think a reasonable base case is that we are still at least a couple of years from Fed rate hikes.
The other policy pillar—fiscal policy—is also more uncertain as the American Rescue Plan and other emergency pandemic programs lapse later this year, including the $300/week enhanced unemployment benefits that expire nationally in September (and sooner in Republican-controlled states).
While the Biden administration clearly wants trillions more in government spending, for example for infrastructure, the politics of passing additional fiscal stimulus are proving challenging given the Democrats’ slimmest of Senate majorities.
Regardless of what happens with the infrastructure negotiations, the U.S. economy is about to shift from getting a large fiscal boost to facing a meaningful fiscal drag—a negative impact on GDP growth—in the latter half of 2021 into 2022 from the expiration of the pandemic programs.
Inflation Question Is Nuanced
Absent a severe resurgence in the pandemic, inflation is probably the key current market and macro risk. As we weigh the evidence, we think the recent surge in inflation is likely to be largely transitory. But as always, there are no certainties. Maintaining a high degree of humility and flexibility on this question is important. And it is much more nuanced than simply, “Is it transitory or permanent?”
June offered interesting new pointers on that question. Various sectors, especially leisure and hospitality, reported staff shortages and wage pressures. Home prices in the United States rose at the fastest pace in decades and, in addition to oil (up by about 10% in June), other commodity prices again pushed higher. On the other hand, the price of copper fell significantly – almost by double digits – for the first time since March 2020, and much talked about lumber became 45% cheaper in June alone.
At its core, our current view on inflation is driven by evidence that the U.S. economy still appears to have significant slack before aggregate demand would start overwhelming the economy’s productive capacity (the supply side), leading to the economic “overheating” that could cause significant, sustained, and broad-based inflation.
The labor market is a key supply-side indicator, and the one the Fed is most focused on as part of its dual mandate. Nonfarm payrolls still shows nearly 8 million fewer jobs compared to February 2020. And if we extend the pre-pandemic employment trend to account for labor force growth over time, it would take until early 2024 to reach the extended trendline assuming the economy adds 500,000 new jobs per month. Meanwhile, more than 9 million people are currently unemployed and potentially available to work immediately.
As long as there is slack in the labor market, wage inflation is unlikely to surge. This means there is low risk of a wage-price spiral that becomes self-reinforcing via “unanchored” inflation expectations, such as the United States experienced in the 1970s.
There is no question the recent CPI inflation numbers have been surprisingly high. However, as the chart to the right from BCA Research shows, more than half of the monthly increases in core CPI in April and May are explained by (1) higher vehicle prices (which is largely due to semiconductor chip shortages constraining new auto production and causing spiking demand for used cars), plus (2) the sharp rebound in the prices of travel and leisure services most deeply hurt by the pandemic (airfares, hotels, and public events).
It’s also possible supply shortages and bottlenecks don’t resolve as quickly as expected; or that wage increases accelerate despite the apparent labor market slack; or that the economic slack is actually tighter than it appears; or that the Biden administration pushes through another huge debt-financed and central bank QE-supported fiscal spending program; and that longer-term inflation expectations start to become unanchored from around 2%. Any of these would be inflationary and could lead us to change our views.
Market Outlook & Portfolio Positioning Allows for a Range of Scenarios
We believe our portfolios are well-positioned for continued strong performance of an ongoing global economic recovery as the world emerges from the pandemic. But we also own asset classes that should do fine in the event of unexpectedly strong inflation. And, as always, in our more conservative balanced portfolios we maintain meaningful positions in assets like core bonds that provide ballast and strength in the event of a deflationary surprise or shorter-term exogenous shock.
Looking out over the shorter to medium term, we expect
- continued positive returns for equity and credit markets on the back of strong early- to mid-cycle economic and corporate earnings growth along with still-accommodative government policy;
- outperformance from non-U.S. equity markets that are more economically sensitive and have lower valuations than the S&P 500, and that have lagged the United States in rolling out widespread vaccinations but are now catching up; and
- poor core bond returns, as Treasury yields are likely to be pressured somewhat higher from current low levels due to stronger global growth and reflation.
Most of our allocations portfolios have a modest overweight to equities relative to a traditional stock/bond benchmark.
Within our equity allocation, we maintain tactically tilted toward U.S. Mid/Small cap and EM equities. But we are prepared for their higher volatility as well, particularly as vaccinations and immunity in many emerging economies are lagging the rest of the world.
Absolute valuations for U.S. stocks are historically very high and embed a lot of good news/high expectations for continued strong U.S. corporate earnings growth. This raises the potential for a typical “mid-cycle” market correction (a 10%-plus decline) should actual S&P 500 earnings growth fail to meet such lofty expectations. The fiscal drag heading into 2022 could be a catalyst.
We’ve shown the chart above from Ned Davis Research before. It is a good reminder that stocks typically deliver lower-than-average returns once earnings growth has reached elevated levels. We are there now.
However, absent a recession—and barring an unexpected external shock, the probability of a recession seems very low over the next 12 months at least—any market correction shouldn’t be too severe or too lengthy, although it certainly won’t feel good as it happens. We’d then expect the bull market to resume, until ultimately topping out amidst unsustainable excesses and imbalances—as cycles typically do, with the market herd proclaiming, “It’s different this time!”
Our reflationary expectations should also be positive for our non-core bond strategies. Broadly speaking, these strategies have exposure to corporate credit and collateral that benefit from stronger economic conditions. These funds generally are also not too sensitive to rising Treasury bond yields (within reason), as compared to the core bond index’s high duration. We think low- to mid-single-digit total returns are reasonable to expect for our active flexible bond managers vs. very low single digits for the core bond index.
The High-Inflation Scenario
But what if inflation picks up more than we expect in our base case? First, we have the ability to tactically adjust our portfolio allocations if our assessment of macro and market conditions is shifting meaningfully toward high inflation risk.
But even as currently positioned, most of the “reflationary” assets we own have historically also performed well (or relatively well) in inflationary environments, including EM equities, and cyclical/value stocks (such as financials, energy, materials, and industrials).
A historical study by Goldman Sachs shows that since 1980 value stocks have tended to outperform growth stocks when economic growth is above average. Value stocks also have done better, on average, during periods of accelerating economic growth and rising interest rates. All of these are consistent with a higher inflation period.
Similarly, long-term historical analysis presented by Larry Swedroe found value stocks have generated their highest excess returns over the broad market index when inflation was greater than 3%. He also notes that during the high-inflation era of 1968 through 1981, when U.S. CPI averaged 7.6%, value stocks (low price-to-book) gained 12.6% annualized, more than doubling the S&P 500 index’s 6.0% nominal return and beating the growth index by even more.
The following charts from JPMorgan Asset Management show various asset class returns since 1988 across different inflationary environments. It uses 2.5% inflation as the dividing line between low and high inflation. These results are also very time-period dependent. So, we would certainly not rely on them as a forecast of future returns—especially not for core bonds, given today’s low yields. But in relative-return terms looking across assets, there may be some information value in this history, for example with respect to EM stocks versus U.S. stocks.
Over longer-term investment horizons, stocks have been excellent at generating returns above inflation, although equity valuations and returns typically take an initial hit as the market adjusts to a higher inflation regime. This is a risk right now, particularly for U.S. growth stocks, which have benefited disproportionately from the past 10-plus years of disinflation and valuation-multiple expansion compared to cyclical value stocks.
It is still too early to say whether and to what extent the past two months’ inflation reports are harbingers of a sustained period of meaningfully higher inflation. Or whether, as the Fed believes, most of the recent sharp price increases will prove transitory, as current supply shortages catch up to demand and increasing productive capacity comes online as the pandemic recedes.
Our current view is that inflation does not get out of control. But we update our tactical views as new information becomes available. And structurally, our portfolios are well-diversified across a range of macro scenarios.
As COVID-19 vaccinations and immunity spread across the globe, we continue to expect a strong global economic recovery. This should bode well for riskier but higher-returning asset classes over the near term (next 12 months). While the Fed is now signaling it is moving closer to beginning to taper its QE asset purchases, monetary policy and interest rates should remain accommodative.
The path of fiscal policy in the United States is less certain, given the political dynamics and polarization. The expiration of the pandemic support programs will turn from a fiscal boost to a fiscal drag later this year and in 2022. But this should also lead to increased labor supply, mitigating wage inflation pressures.
With the likelihood of a U.S. recession very low—absent a severe external shock—we see low risk of a bear market. Of course, 10%-plus stock market corrections can always occur. And as we move further into the U.S. earnings cycle, the odds of a typical mid-cycle market correction increase. But despite elevated S&P 500 valuations and a likely deceleration in S&P 500 earnings growth, we believe global equities have additional return potential in this cycle. More specifically, we continue to see superior shorter- to medium-term return prospects in Smaller U.S. and EM equity markets, where earnings have more room for positive surprises and valuations are more reasonable. As always, though, equity investors should be prepared for a bumpy ride.
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